We performed several robustness tests to verify the validity of the results obtained in the general model when estimating the different groups of countries by geographical or organizational groups. The results of these tests are robust and support the thesis of the article. The results of the regression analysis are consistent with those of Haveman and Shatz (2004a, b), who found that tariff barriers for least developed countries have decreased significantly and are exceptionally low in the EU. For many developing countries, import and export barriers continue to significantly impede trade. With regard to non-tariff barriers (NTBs), Carrère and De Melo (2011) propose an alternative approach to estimating the impact of non-tariff measures (NTMs) on trade flows.
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